The Imagery–Image Duality Model: An Integrative Review and Advocating for Improved Delimitation of Concepts

Alexander Josiassen, A. George Assaf, Linda Teresa Woo, Florian Kock

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

46 Citations (Scopus)


A central research topic in tourism management concerns tourists’ choice of specific destinations. The present article reviews and advances the extant literature on destination image. From this review, we suggest that individuals have a multitude of destination associations, the total imagery that relates to the destination, and label this concept destination imagery. Individuals also hold an overall image used as a heuristic or a mental shortcut, which is labeled destination image. The concepts of destination imagery and destination image are distinct, yet they have often been conflated within the literature. The article further provides an extensive review of the literature with regard to the definitions, dimensionality, antecedents, and outcomes of the focal concepts as well as geographical scope of destination imagery and image studies and methodologies. This review has led to a novel understanding and delimitation of the focal concepts within the imagery–image duality model.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)789-803
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Travel Research
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • country bias
  • country of origin image
  • destination image
  • destination imagery
  • tourist behavior

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Transportation
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management

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