The ‘if-then’ rules matter more? The roles of regulatory focus and leader–member exchange

You-De Dai, Wen-Long Zhuang, Annie Ko (Corresponding Author), Fevzi Okumus

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


This study aimed to explore the impact of regulatory focus on employees’ effort behavior and social loafing in the context of international tourist hotels. The moderating effect of leader–member exchange on this causal relationship was also examined. Data were analyzed using a regression model of 708 valid responses obtained from frontline employees working in five-star international hotels. The results reveal that regulatory focus is positively related to effort behavior and partially supports social loafing. Leader–member exchange moderates the relationship between promotion focus and effort behavior as well as between prevention focus and effort behavior. These findings provide managerial implications for hotel managers in regard to predicting positive work behavior and minimizing negative behavior in the workplace.
Original languageAmerican English
Article number102602
Pages (from-to)1
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Hospitality Management
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020


  • Effort behavior
  • Hotel frontline employees
  • Leader–member Exchange
  • Regulatory Focus
  • Social Loafing

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