The Five Constants: A Confucian Business Model for the Hospitality Industry

Kaye Chon, Fei Hao

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This exploratory study develops a Confucian hospitality business model through which Confucian hospitality practice is defined, implemented, interconnected, and interpreted. This study reviews the Confucian historical context to provide a holistic picture of the temporal and spatial evolution of Confucianism. Based on the five Confucian constants of humanity, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, and faithfulness, this study hermeneutically develops a Confucian hospitality business model that embraces business ethics, leadership, work ethics, service provision, and corporate social responsibility. This study is the first to present a holistic understanding of hospitality practice in the light of Confucianism and to propose a Confucian hospitality business model. The model can be adopted by hospitality practitioners who are based in Confucian areas, serve Confucian customers, hire Confucian employees, or establish Confucian partnerships. Based on the model, Confucian hospitality training programs can be developed to guide future hospitality education.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1051-1071
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Hospitality and Tourism Research
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2020


  • business model
  • Confucianism
  • corporate social responsibility
  • hospitality
  • leadership

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management

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