The factor structure of a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale-SF: Use with alone elderly Chinese in Shanghai, China

Wing Leung Lai, Hongmei Tong, Qun Zeng, Wenyan Xu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: This study aimed to examine the factor structure of a Chinese version of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) with a sample of community dwelling elderly Chinese living alone in Shanghai, China. Method: Data were obtained between August and October 2008 through face-to-face interviews, using a structured survey questionnaire, from a random sample of 228 Chinese who were 60 years and older and living alone in one of the aging communities in Shanghai, China. Depressive symptoms were measured by a 15-item Chinese version Geriatric Depression Scale. Both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted to examine the factor structure of the GDS. Results: Over 30% of the elderly Chinese living alone reported having symptoms that indicated that they hadmild or an abovemild level of depression. Furthermore, the findings also indicated that the depression symptoms were loaded into a four-factor model: 1) positive and negative mood; 2) energy level; 3) inferiority; and 4) disinterested, explaining over 58% of the total variance of depressive symptoms. Conclusions: The findings presented evidence of the applicability of the GDS to elderly Chinese living alone in China. This instrument would be useful for identifying potential depression concerns among elderly Chinese living alone.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)503-510
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Depression
  • Elderly chinese
  • Factor analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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