The enhancement of rate and cycle performance of LiMn 2 O 4 at elevated temperatures by the synergistic roles of porous structure and dual-cation doping

Yuanfu Deng, Shanxing Wang, Yubo Zhou, Yunxian Qian, Xusong Qin, Guohua Chen

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

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Abstract: Spinel LiMn 2 O 4 -based cathode material has been successfully commercialized for power lithium ion batteries for large-scale applications in pure electric vehicles. However, pure LiMn 2 O 4 suffers from poor rate performance and fast capacity fading especially at elevated temperatures derived from Mn dissolution and structural distortion. Herein, a study on the rate and cycle performance of single/double-cation doped porous LiMn 2 O 4 microspheres, which was prepared by an easy method using porous MnCO 3 microspheres as a self-supporting template, was performed. The as-synthesized porous Li 1.02 Co 0.05 Mn 1.90 Li 0.05 O 4 (LMO-S4) microspheres constructed with nanometer-sized primary particles show an obvious enhancement of cyclability over other LiMn 2 O 4 -based materials such as Li 1.02 Mn 2 O 4 (LMO-S1), Li 1.02 Mn 1.95 Li 0.05 O 4 (LMO-S2) and Li 1.02 Co 0.05 Mn 1.95 O 4 (LMO-S3), especially at an elevated temperature (55 °C). The obtained LMO-S4/lithium half cells deliver capacities of 113.1 and 109.0 mAh g −1 at 1.0 and 5 C, respectively, with the corresponding capacity retentions of 88.9 and 90.2% for up to 1000 cycles. Meanwhile, it can deliver an initial capacity of 114.0 mAh g −1 at 5 C with a capacity retention of 80.1% after 1000 cycles at 55 °C. Furthermore, it displays superior rate performance and cycle performance at 0 °C with a specific capacity of 106 mAh g −1 , and the capacity retention is 79.6% after 1000 cycles at 5 C. These results reveal that a dual-doping strategy and porous structure design play synergistic roles in the preparation of high performance LiMn 2 O 4 -based spinel cathode material. The cation co-doped strategy can maintain the crystal structural stability and provide interfacial stability while preserving fast Li + diffusion during the long-time cycling at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, the porous structure favors fast Li + intercalation/deintercalation kinetics by allowing electrolyte insertion through the nanoparticles during the reversible electrochemical process. Graphical Abstract: Lithium and cobalt co-doped LiMn 2 O 4 with a nominal composition of Li 1.02 Co 0.05 Mn 1.90 Li 0.05 O 4 exhibits an obviously improved cycle performance at high temperature than that of single-doped LiMn 2 O 4 . [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1083-1094
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Applied Electrochemistry
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2018


  • Cation dual-doping
  • Cycle performance
  • High temperature
  • LiMn O spinel
  • Porous structure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Electrochemistry
  • Materials Chemistry

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