The effects of web holes on web crippling strength of cold-formed steel channels under end-two-flange loading condition

Asraf Uzzaman, James B.P. Lim, David Nash, Jim Rhodes, Ben Young

Research output: Chapter in book / Conference proceedingConference article published in proceeding or bookAcademic researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Cold-formed steel sections are often used as wall studs or floor joists; such sections often include web holes for ease of installation of the services. Web crippling at points of concentrated, or localised, load or reaction in thin-walled beams is well known to be a significant problem, particularly in the case of beams with slender webs, and is of high importance in the field of cold-formed steel members, as such members are generally not stiffened against this type of loading. In this paper, a combination of experimental tests and non-linear elasto-plastic finite element analyses are used to investigate the effect of such holes on web crippling under end-two-flange (ETF) loading condition. In the case of the tests with web openings, the web holes located at the mid-depth of the webs. A non-linear elasto-plastic finite element model is developed in this study, and the results compared against the laboratory test results; a good agreement was obtained in terms of both strength and failure modes.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 21th International Specialty Conference on Cold-formed Steel Structures, St. Louis, Mo., USA
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2012
Externally publishedYes
Event21st International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures - St. Louis, MO, United States
Duration: 24 Oct 201225 Oct 2012


Conference21st International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySt. Louis, MO


  • Channel section
  • Cold-formed steel
  • Finite element analysis
  • Web crippling
  • Web openings

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Metals and Alloys

Cite this