The Effects of Theta/Beta-based Neurofeedback Training on Attention in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Clara S.C. Lee (Corresponding Author), Ting ting Chen, Qingwen Gao, Chunzhuo Hua, Rui Song, Xiu ping Huang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Neurofeedback training is a common treatment option for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given theta/beta-based neurofeedback (T/B NF) training targets at the electrophysiological characteristics of children with ADHD, benefits for attention may be expected. PsycINFO, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched through December 31, 2020. Studies were evaluated with Risk of Bias tools. Within-group effects based on Pre- and Post-treatment comparisons of the Intervention Group, and Between-group effects based on the between-group differences from Pre-treatment to Post-treatment were calculated. Nineteen studies met selection criteria for systematic review, 12 of them were included in meta-analysis. Within-group effects were medium at Post-treatment and large at Follow-up. Between-group analyses revealed that T/B NF was superior to waitlist control and physical activities, but not stimulant medication. Results showed that T/B NF has benefits for attention in children with ADHD, however, cautions should be taken when interpreting the findings.

Original languageEnglish
JournalChild Psychiatry and Human Development
Publication statusPublished - 26 Apr 2022


  • ADHD
  • Attention problems
  • Children
  • Neurofeedback
  • Theta/beta-based neurofeedback

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this