The effects of the relative strength of simultaneous competing defocus signals on emmetropization in infant rhesus monkeys

Baskar Arumugam, Li Fang Hung, Chi Ho To, Padmaja Sankaridurg, Earl L. Smith

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: We investigated how the relative surface area devoted to the more positive-powered component in dual-focus lenses influences emmetropization in rhesus monkeys. Methods: From 3 to 21 weeks of age, macaques were reared with binocular dual-focus spectacles. The treatment lenses had central 2-mm zones of zero-power and concentric annular zones that had alternating powers of either +3.0 diopters (D) and 0 D (+3 D/pL) or −3.0 D and 0 D (−3 D/pL). The relative widths of the powered and plano zones varied from 50:50 to 18:82 between treatment groups. Refractive status, corneal curvature, and axial dimensions were assessed biweekly throughout the lens-rearing period. Comparison data were obtained from monkeys reared with binocular full-field single-vision lenses (FF+3D, n = 6; FF−3D, n = 10) and from 35 normal controls. Results: The median refractive errors for all of the +3 D/pL lens groups were similar to that for the FF+3D group (+4.63 D versus +4.31 D to +5.25 D; P = 0.18–0.96), but significantly more hyperopic than that for controls (+2.44 D; P = 0.0002–0.003). In the −3 D/pL monkeys, refractive development was dominated by the zero-powered portions of the treatment lenses; the −3 D/pL animals (+2.94 D to +3.13 D) were more hyperopic than the FF−3D monkeys (−0.78 D; P = 0.004–0.006), but similar to controls (+2.44 D; P = 0.14–0.22). Conclusions: The results demonstrate that even when the more positive-powered zones make up only one-fifth of a dual-focus lens' surface area, refractive development is still dominated by relative myopic defocus. Overall, the results emphasize that myopic defocus distributed across the visual field evokes strong signals to slow eye growth in primates.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3949-3960
Number of pages12
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2016


  • Emmetropization
  • Eye growth
  • Fresnel lens
  • Hyperopia
  • Myopia
  • Refractive error

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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