The effects of perceived culture difference and transformational leadership on job performance in the container shipping industry

Chin-shan Lu, Chi Chang Lin

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the effects of perceived culture difference (between local employees and foreign managing directors) and foreign managing directors' transformational leadership on job performance based on the perceptions of employees in the container shipping context. Research hypotheses were formulated and tested using survey data collected from Taiwanese employees working in four major foreign container shipping companies. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the effects of four national culture dimensions (namely, power distance, collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity) and transformational leadership on job performance. Study findings indicated that the national culture dimensions of uncertainty avoidance and collectivism had a positive influence on job performance, whereas power distance and masculinity had a negative influence. The study also found that transformational leadership had a moderating effect on the relationship between national culture and job performance. Implications of the findings for shipping companies and areas for further research are discussed and proposed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)463-475
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Marine Science and Technology (Taiwan)
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014


  • Container shipping industry
  • Cultural difference
  • Job performance
  • Transformational leadership

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Ocean Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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