The effectiveness of artificial intelligent 3-D virtual reality vocational problem-solving training in enhancing employment opportunities for people with traumatic brain injury

Wai Kwong Man, Wai Sang Poon, Chow Lam

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)


Background: People with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often experience cognitive deficits in attention, memory, executive functioning and problem-solving. The purpose of the present research study was to examine the effectiveness of an artificial intelligent virtual reality (VR)-based vocational problem-solving skill training programme designed to enhance employment opportunities for people with TBI. Method: This was a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the effectiveness of the above programme with that of the conventional psycho-educational approach. Forty participants with mild (n=20) or moderate (n=20) brain injury were randomly assigned to each training programme. Comparisons of problem-solving skills were performed with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Tower of London Test and the Vocational Cognitive Rating Scale. Results: Improvement in selective memory processes and perception of memory function were found. Across-group comparison showed that the VR group performed more favourably than the therapist-led one in terms of objective and subjective outcome measures and better vocational outcomes. Conclusions: These results support the potential use of a VR-based approach in memory training in people with MCI. Further VR applications, limitations and future research are described.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1016-1025
Number of pages10
JournalBrain Injury
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013


  • Artificial intelligence
  • Cognitive rehabilitation
  • Employment
  • Technology
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Neurology

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