The effectiveness of an attachment-based parenting programme for parents in Hong Kong

Sowa Ngai, Hoyee Au-Yeung, Waiyan Christy Tsui, Shimin Zhu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Love, Limits and Latitude (LLL) is a standardised ten-session parenting education programme based on the attachment theory developed in the United States. We translated and applied for the LLL programme in Hong Kong to examine its effect on parental stress levels, children’s problematic behaviours and family functioning. We recruited N = 69 parents with children aged six to 12 and conducted eight groups under the LLL programme. A paired t-test was used to analyse the pre-test and post-test data regarding the targeted outcomes. Results found that the LLL programme significantly reduced parental stress, children’s problematic behaviours and improved relationships between family members. The application of an attachment-based parenting programme in Chinese culture, and the theoretical and practical implications, along with the limitations, are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4-16
Number of pages13
JournalChina Journal of Social Work
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 16 Dec 2020


  • attachment theory
  • Chinese parents
  • LLL programme
  • parent-child relationships
  • parenting education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Sociology and Political Science


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