The effect of functional gradient material distribution and patterning on torsional properties of lattice structures manufactured using multijet fusion technology

Yeabsra Mekdim Hailu, Aamer Nazir (Corresponding Author), Shang Chih Lin, Jeng Ywan Jeng (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Functionally graded lattice structures have attracted much attention in engineering due to their excellent mechanical performance resulting from their optimized and application-specific properties. These structures are inspired by nature and are important for a lightweight yet efficient and optimal functionality. They have enhanced mechanical properties over the uniform density counterparts because of their graded design, making them preferable for many applications. Several studies were carried out to investigate the mechanical properties of graded density lattice structures subjected to different types of loadings mainly related to tensile, compression, and fatigue responses. In applications related to biomedical, automotive, and aerospace sectors, dynamic bending and rotational stresses are critical load components. Therefore, the study of torsional properties of functionally gradient lattice structures will contribute to a better implementation of lattice structures in several sectors. In this study, several functionally gradient triply periodic minimal surfaces structures and strut-based lattice structures were designed in cylindrical shapes having 40% relative density. The HP Multi Jet Fusion 4200 3D printer was used to fabricate all specimens for the experimental study. A torsional experiment until the failure of each structure was conducted to investigate properties of the lattice structures such as torsional stiffness, energy absorption, and failure characteristics. The results showed that the stiffness and energy absorption of structures can be improved by an effective material distribution that corresponds to the stress concentration due to torsional load. The TPMS based functionally gradient design showed a 35% increase in torsional stiffness and 15% increase in the ultimate shear strength compared to their uniform counterparts. In addition, results also revealed that an effective material distribution affects the failure mechanism of the lattice structures and delays the plastic deformation, increasing their resistance to torsional loads.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6521
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Design
  • Energy absorption
  • Failure behavior
  • Functionally gradient lattice
  • Lattice structures
  • Torsion
  • Torsional stiffness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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