The effect of added fullness and ventilation holes in T-shirt design on thermal comfort

Chu Po Ho, Jintu Fan, Edward Newton, Raymond Au

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reports on an experimental investigation on the effect of added fullness and ventilation holes in T-shirt design on clothing comfort measured in terms of thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance. Four T-shirts in four different sizes (S, M, L, XL) were cut under the traditional sizing method while another (F-1) was cut with specially added fullness to create a 'flared' drape. A thermal manikin 'Walter' was used to measure the thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of the T-shirts in a chamber with controlled temperature, relative humidity and air velocity. The tests included four conditions: manikin standing still in the no-wind and windy conditions and walking in the no-wind and windy condition. It was found that adding fullness in the T-shirt design (F-1) to create the 'flared' drape can significantly reduce the T-shirt's thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance under walking or windy conditions. Heat and moisture transmission through the T-shirt can be further enhanced by creating small apertures on the front and back of the T-shirt with specially added fullness. Statement of Relevance: The thermal comfort of the human body is one of the key issues in the study of ergonomics. When doing exercise, a human body will generate heat, which will eventually result in sweating. If heat and moisture are not released effectively from the body, heat stress may occur and the person's performance will be negatively affected. Therefore, contemporary athletic T-shirts are designed to improve the heat and moisture transfer from the wearer. Through special cutting, such athletic T-shirts can be designed to improve the ventilation of the wearer.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)403-410
Number of pages8
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2011


  • Cutting
  • Design
  • T-shirt
  • Thermal comfort
  • Ventilation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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