The effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program on improving Chinese handwriting of children with handwriting difficulties

K. W. Poon, Wai Ping Cecilia Tsang, T. P.L. Weiss, S. Rosenblum

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed to investigate the effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program to enhance Chinese handwriting performance among children with learning difficulties, particularly those with handwriting problems. Participants were 26 primary-one children who were assessed by educational psychologists and occupational therapists to have handwriting difficulties. They were matched according to their age and then randomly assigned into either the control group or the experimental group. Subjects in the experimental group (n= 13) would receive eight sessions of computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training together with a home training program while those in the control group (n= 13) would only receive conventional handwriting training by teachers, which focused mainly on remedial handwriting exercises. Results from repeated measure ANOVA revealed that children in the experimental group showed improvements in their visual perception skills as well as in their handwriting time. Both the "On Paper" time and "In Air" time of this group were improved when compared to the control group. However, no significant differences were found in visual-motor integration skill and handwriting legibility between the two groups after the intervention. This computerized training program focusing on visual perception and visual-motor integration training appeared to be effective in enhancing the handwriting time among children with handwriting difficulties. However, the training program did not seem to improve the legibility of children.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1552-1560
Number of pages9
JournalResearch in Developmental Disabilities
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2010


  • Child
  • Developmental disabilities
  • Handwriting
  • Legibility

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology

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