The Dual-route Account of Writing-to-Dictation in Chinese: A Short Report

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1 Citation (Scopus)


This is a short report of an experiment conducted to investigate the effects of phonology-to-orthography (P-O) consistency, lexical frequency, imageability, and the number of strokes on writing-to-dictation in Chinese. Thirty-two undergraduates were tested using a writing-to-dictation task consisting of 60 Chinese characters without homophones (i.e., P-O consistent) and 60 Chinese characters with at least two homophones (i.e., P-O inconsistent), the responses of which were recorded on an Android tablet. Linear mixed-effect modelling was used to investigate the significance of the different effects on three measures—accuracy, response time (RT), and total writing time. The results indicated that imageability was significant in predicting accuracy and RT; P-O consistency was significant in predicting RT and total writing time; the number of strokes was significant in predicting accuracy and total writing time; and the lexical frequency effect was significant in predicting all three measures. In general, the results supported the dual-route account of writing-to-dictation in Chinese and confirmed that both the lexical-semantic and lexical non-semantic pathways are needed to explain writing-to-dictation in Chinese. The significance of the different effects observed in the three measures also indicated the need to include different measures when studying writing-to-dictation to better understand the time course of the writing process.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages14
JournalLanguage and Speech
Publication statusPublished - 30 Oct 2020


  • Chinese
  • feedback consistency
  • lexical processing
  • writing-to-dictation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Speech and Hearing


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