The differential immunological activities of Ganoderma lucidum on human pre-cancerous uroepithelial cells

Wai Man Yuen, M. D I Gohel, C. F. Ng

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Aims of the study: Ganoderma lucidum is active to stimulate immunological effector cells, but the effects on uroepithelial cells have never been explored. The present study compared the expression of major cytokines induced by the water (GLw) and ethanol (GLe) extracts of G. lucidum. Materials and Methods: The pre-cancerous human uroepithelial cell (HUC-PC) line was employed. A total of 15 cytokines, including major Th1/Th2 cytokines and chemokines, were measured in the complete media after 24 h incubation with GLw and GLe. Additionally, the following assays were performed: cytotoxicity, apoptosis, migration of neutrophils, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) DNA binding activity. Results: GLe inhibited the growth of HUC-PC cells through apoptosis. Interleukins IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 were significantly up-regulated by GLe in dose-dependent manners, but not by GLw. However, MCP-1 level was significantly increased by GLw but was oppositely reduced by GLe. Furthermore, the elevation of cytokine expression was correlated with the enhancement of p50/p65 NF-κB activity induced by GLe. The elevated IL-8 levels in GLe-treated cells were also correlated with the migration of neutrophils. Conclusions: GLe and GLw exhibited different immunological activities on the HUC-PC cells. In particular, the activities of GLe may favor the clearance of high risk urothelial cells, suggesting potent chemopreventive ingredients are extractable by ethanol from G. lucidum.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)711-718
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Ethnopharmacology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2011


  • Bladder cancer
  • Cytokines
  • Ganoderma lucidum
  • Immune
  • Uroepithelial cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery


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