The Development of an Evidence-Based Telephone-Coached Bibliotherapy Protocol for Improving Dementia Caregiving Appraisal

Shanshan Wang, Daphne Sze Ki Cheung, Daniel Bressington, Yan Li, Angela Yee Man Leung

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Caregiving appraisal is the caregivers' cognitive evaluation of caregiving stressors. It determines the caregiving outcomes and caregiver health. Dementia caregivers have shown relatively negative caregiving appraisals. However, there is a lack of interventions to improve caregiving appraisal. This study describes the multi-phase process of developing and validating an evidence-based bibliotherapy protocol for improving the caregiving appraisal of informal caregivers of people with dementia. Two phases were included in the development: In Phase 1, a series of reviews of theory and evidence were conducted to identify the theoretical underpinnings, the core components, the dosage, and the mode of delivery of evidence-based bibliotherapy. In Phase 2, focus groups consisting of an expert panel of 16 clinicians and academics were used to validate the intervention protocol. Evidence synthesis was used in Phase 1 to formulate a draft intervention protocol. Content analysis was used in Phase 2 to work out the principles to revise the intervention protocol. The validated evidence-based bibliotherapy protocol included eight weekly sessions, and each session targeted improving one aspect of the essential factors that influence caregiving appraisal. This study provided a culturally sensitive and contextually appropriate evidence-based bibliotherapy protocol ready to be tested in a clinical trial.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8731
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jul 2022


  • bibliotherapy
  • caregiver
  • dementia
  • intervention
  • nursing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


Dive into the research topics of 'The Development of an Evidence-Based Telephone-Coached Bibliotherapy Protocol for Improving Dementia Caregiving Appraisal'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this