The Costly Consequences of not Being Socially and Behaviorally Ready to Learn by Kindergarten in Baltimore City

Amie F. Bettencourt, Deborah Gross, Grace Ho, Nancy Perrin

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Social, emotional, and behavioral skills are foundational to learning and long-term success. However, poverty and exposure to adverse childhood experiences reduce the chances of children entering kindergarten socially-behaviorally ready to learn. This study examined the unique impact of 5-year-old children (N = 11,412) entering kindergarten not socially-behaviorally ready on three costly school outcomes by fourth grade in Baltimore City Public Schools: being retained in grade, receiving services and supports through an IEP or 504 plan, and being suspended/expelled. Controlling for all other types of school readiness, students not identified as socially-behaviorally ready for kindergarten were more likely to experience all three school outcomes. Findings underscore the importance of early prevention and intervention strategies targeting parents and social-behavioral readiness skills during the first 5 years of life.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-50
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Urban Health
Volume95
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018

Keywords

  • Grade retention
  • Poverty
  • Social, emotional, and behavioral readiness
  • Special education services
  • Suspension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Urban Studies
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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