The classification of scoliosis braces developed by SOSORT with SRS, ISPO, and POSNA and approved by ESPRM

Stefano Negrini, Angelo Gabriele Aulisa, Pavel Cerny, Jean Claude de Mauroy, Jeb McAviney, Andrew Mills, Sabrina Donzelli, Theodoros B. Grivas, M. Timothy Hresko, Tomasz Kotwicki, Hubert Labelle, Louise Marcotte, Martin Matthews, Joe O’Brien, Eric C. Parent, Nigel Price, Rigo Manuel, Luke Stikeleather, Michael G. Vitale, Man Sang WongGrant Wood, James Wynne, Fabio Zaina, Marco Brayda Bruno, Suncica Bulat Würsching, Yilgor Caglar, Patrick Cahill, Eugenio Dema, Patrick Knott, Andrea Lebel, Grigorii Lein, Peter O. Newton, Brian G. Smith

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Studies have shown that bracing is an effective treatment for patients with idiopathic scoliosis. According to the current classification, almost all braces fall in the thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO) category. Consequently, the generalization of scientific results is either impossible or misleading. This study aims to produce a classification of the brace types. Methods: Four scientific societies (SOSORT, SRS, ISPO, and POSNA) invited all their members to be part of the study. Six level 1 experts developed the initial classifications. At a consensus meeting with 26 other experts and societies’ officials, thematic analysis and general discussion allowed to define the classification (minimum 80% agreement). The classification was applied to the braces published in the literature and officially approved by the 4 scientific societies and by ESPRM. Results: The classification is based on the following classificatory items: anatomy (CTLSO, TLSO, LSO), rigidity (very rigid, rigid, elastic), primary corrective plane (frontal, sagittal, transverse, frontal & sagittal, frontal & transverse, sagittal & transverse, three-dimensional), construction—valves (monocot, bivalve, multisegmented), construction—closure (dorsal, lateral, ventral), and primary action (bending, detorsion, elongation, movement, push-up, three points). The experts developed a definition for each item and were able to classify the 15 published braces into nine groups. Conclusion: The classification is based on the best current expertise (the lowest level of evidence). Experts recognize that this is the first edition and will change with future understanding and research. The broad application of this classification could have value for brace research, education, clinical practice, and growth in this field.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)980-989
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Spine Journal
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 21 Feb 2022


  • Brace
  • Classification
  • Idiopathic scoliosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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