The aging effect on corneal curvature and the validity of Javal's rule in Hong Kong Chinese

Kwok Cheung Andrew Lam, Carrie C.Y. Chan, M. H. Lee, K. M. Wong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose. The current study compared the central corneal curvature and the refractive error of Hong Kong Chinese to study the validity of Javal's rule. Methods. Subjects without corneal pathology were recruited at different age ranges. Their refractive error and the corneal curvature were measured and compared for the right eye only. Two instruments were used for the measurement of corneal curvature including a conventional Bausch and Lomb (B and L) keratometer and a computer-assisted videokeratoscope (TMS-1). Results. Subjects age ranged from 21 years to 77 years were recruited and were categorized into five groups according to age. The Bausch and Lomb keratometer was found to provide corneal information similar to that from the TMS-1. The corneal astigmatism was found to change from with-the-rule to against-the-rule with advancing age. The spectacle astigmatism followed a similar trend. There was a hyperopic shift in the spherical component of the refractive error with aging as well. A regression equation: Spectacle astigmatism = 0.93 (Corneal astigmatism) + (-0.58D x 90) was found, which is similar to the simplified Javal's rule. There was a shift of 1.03D in hyperopia (spherical equivalent) for each decade. Conclusions. Both the corneal and spectacle astigmatism demonstrated a shift from with-the-rule to against-the-rule with age. The simplified Javal's rule is more suitable for predicting the spectacle astigmatism from corneal astigmatism in Hong Kong Chinese.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-90
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Eye Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1999


  • Aging
  • Chinese
  • Cornea
  • Javal's rule
  • Keratometry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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