Background: Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC) is mainly caused by translocation of the TFE3 gene located on chromosome Xp11.2 and is characterized by overexpression of the TFE3 fusion gene. Patients are diagnosed with tRCC usually before 45 years of age with poor prognosis. We investigated this disease using two tRCC cell lines, UOK109 and UOK120, in this study. Methods: The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathogenic mechanism of TFE3 fusions in tRCC based on its subcellular localization, nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity. The expression of TFE3 fusions and other related genes were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. The subcellular localization of TFE3 was determined using immunofluorescence. The transcriptional activity of TFE3 fusions was measured using a luciferase reporter assay and ChIP analysis. In some experiments, TFE3 fusions were depleted by RNAi or gene knockdown. The TFE3 fusion segments were cloned into a plasmid expression system for expression in cells. Results: Our results demonstrated that TFE3 fusions were overexpressed in tRCC with a strong nuclear retention irrespective of treatment with an mTORC1 inhibitor or not. TFE3 fusions lost its co-localization with lysosomal proteins and decreased its interaction with the chaperone 14-3-3 proteins in UOK109 and UOK120 cells. However, the fusion segments of TFE3 could not translocate to the nucleus and inhibition of Gsk3β could increase the cytoplasmic retention of TFE3 fusions. Both the luciferase reporter assay and ChIP analysis demonstrated that TFE3 fusions could bind to the promoters of the target genes as a wild-type TFE3 protein. Knockdown of TFE3 results in decreased expression of those genes responsible for lysosomal biogenesis and other target genes. The ChIP-seq data further verified that, in addition to lysosomal genes, TFE3 fusions could regulate genes involved in cellular responses to hypoxic stress and transcription. Conclusions: Our results indicated that the overexpressed TFE3 fusions were capable of escaping from the control by the mTOR signaling pathway and were accumulated in the nucleus in UOK109 and UOK120 cells. The nuclear retention of TFE3 fusions promoted the expression of lysosomal genes and other target genes, facilitating cancer cell resistance against an extreme environment.
|Journal||Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research|
|Publication status||Published - 8 Mar 2019|
- Nuclear retention
- Subcellular localization
- Transcription factor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research