Testing the effects of congruity, travel constraints, and self-efficacy on travel intentions: An alternative decision-making model

Kam Hung, James F. Petrick

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

142 Citations (Scopus)


Travel decision making has been extensively studied. Various models and theories have been proposed to explain tourist behavior. Taking a new approach, this study applied the Motivation-Opportunity-Ability (MOA) model to explain travel intentions. The MOA model suggests that motivation, opportunity, and ability are major factors influencing travel intentions. This study explored the role of self-congruity, functional congruity, perceived travel constraints, constraint negotiation, and self-efficacy on travel intentions. The proposed model and hypotheses were tested in the context of cruise tourism. An online panel survey was conducted with cruisers. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test both the proposed model and hypothesized relationships among the constructs. All hypotheses except one were supported by the data. The proposed model also had an acceptable fit to the data.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)855-867
Number of pages13
JournalTourism Management
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2012


  • Ability
  • Cruise tourism
  • MOA model
  • Motivation
  • Opportunity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Development
  • Transportation
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
  • Strategy and Management

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