Testing factorial invariance across groups: An illustration using amos

Research output: Chapter in book / Conference proceedingChapter in an edited book (as author)Academic researchpeer-review


One pre-condition to use scale or subscale scores of an instrument to compare different groups on a specific construct is the establishment of factorial invariance (i.e., factor structure is the same across groups). Despite its importance, testing for factorial invariance across groups has been rarely conducted in human development research. In this paper, the importance of conducting factorial invariance tests and the basic theoretical and methodological issues are first described. The steps of how to test factorial invariance across independent groups using AMOS 17.0 are then illustrated. In the demonstration, the factorial invariance of a subjective outcome evaluation form (Form B) designed to be a three-factor structure was examined among three groups of potential program implementers in Hong Kong (N = 2,007). As evidenced by the multigroup factorial invariance found in this study, the three-factor model of Form B was cross-validated across different groups of program implementers.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHuman Developmental Research
Subtitle of host publicationExperience from Research in Hong Kong
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages24
ISBN (Electronic)9781628081671
ISBN (Print)9781628081664
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Social Sciences


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