Testing factorial invariance across groups: An illustration using AMOS

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16 Citations (Scopus)


One pre-condition to use scale or subscale scores of an instrument to compare different groups on a specific construct is the establishment of factorial invariance (i.e., factor structure is the same across groups). Despite its importance, testing for factorial invariance across groups has been rarely conducted in human development research. In this paper, we describe the importance of conducting factorial invariance tests as well as the related basic theoretical and methodological issues. We then illustrate the process of testing factorial invariance across independent groups using AMOS 17.0. In the demonstration, we examine the factorial invariance of a subjective outcome evaluation form (Form B), designed to be a three-factor structure, in three groups of potential program implementers in Hong Kong (n=2007). As evidenced by the multigroup factorial invariance found in this study, the three-factor model of Form B was cross-validated across different groups of program implementers.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)205-216
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal on Disability and Human Development
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2014


  • AMOS
  • Chinese
  • confirmatory factor analysis
  • factorial invariance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Advanced and Specialised Nursing
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Sensory Systems
  • Speech and Hearing


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