Tellurium-assisted and space-confined growth of graphene single crystals

Hongwei Liu, Ruizhe Wu, Md Delowar Hossain, Xuyun Guo, Jie Pan, Runlai Li, Irfan Haider Abidi, Zhenjing Liu, Ye Zhu, Zhengtang Luo, Yao Ding

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Low-temperature synthesis of large-area graphene films by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method has attracted extensive research interests owing to their extraordinary potential applications. Current reports on the low-temperature graphene growth usually involve catalytic metal substrates, which exceedingly impedes the direct use of graphene in nanoelectronic fabrications. In this project, we design a space-confined growth chamber utilizing two SiO2/Si chips. The bottom chip loading pre-transferred graphene flakes accommodates the growth of second monolayer graphene, with a tellurium (Te) vapor assisted growth process. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) residues introduced from the transferred graphene substrate is employed as the solid carbon source. Further, the numerical simulation results prove that the high concentration of active carbons in the confined space plays a vital role in this growth process. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that, Te atoms prefer to bond with the edge carbons of small graphene flakes and serve as an effective catalyst, which helps to grow small graphene flakes by reducing their energy of formation. The successful growth can provide the high-quality monolayer graphene grains at the low temperature (∼350 °C). This facile strategy promises the mass production of graphene at mild conditions and low costs, which contributes to the green chemistry in future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-60
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • CVD
  • Graphene growth
  • Low temperature
  • Space-confined
  • Tellurium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science


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