Teachers' attitudes towards varieties of Hong Kong English: Implications for English language teaching

Hans Jorgen Ladegaard, Ka Long Chan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Previous language attitude research in Hong Kong compared Hong Kong English (HKE) to exonormative standard Englishes, whereas this study uses five varieties of HKE with more or less localised features. One hundred English language teachers were listener judges in a verbal-guise experiment, and the results showed that most of the speakers received positive evaluations, particularly on solidarity dimensions. The speaker with most local features received the most negative evaluation, but the difference was most evident on status dimensions. Thus, speakers of HKE are seen as likeable, competent and proficient, which suggests that Hong Kong may have entered into the nativisation stage of Kachru’s (1983) model. We argue that the recognition of HKE demonstrated in this study should have implications for English language teaching. We propose adopting pedagogies grounded in local language and culture, which would encourage students and teachers to express themselves in localised English, and express a local identity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number44 (2)
Pages (from-to)251-275
Number of pages25
JournalEnglish World-Wide
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 13 Apr 2023


  • English language teaching
  • Hong Kong English
  • language attitudes
  • nativisation
  • verbal-guise

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language


Dive into the research topics of 'Teachers' attitudes towards varieties of Hong Kong English: Implications for English language teaching'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this