Tailoring sodium intercalation in graphite for high energy and power sodium ion batteries

Zheng Long Xu, Gabin Yoon, Kyu Young Park, Hyeokjun Park, Orapa Tamwattana, Sung Joo Kim, Won Mo Seong, Kisuk Kang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

189 Citations (Scopus)


Co-intercalation reactions make graphite as promising anodes for sodium ion batteries, however, the high redox potentials significantly lower the energy density. Herein, we investigate the factors that influence the co-intercalation potential of graphite and find that the tuning of the voltage as large as 0.38 V is achievable by adjusting the relative stability of ternary graphite intercalation compounds and the solvent activity in electrolytes. The feasibility of graphite anode in sodium ion batteries is confirmed in conjunction with Na1.5VPO4.8F0.7 cathodes by using the optimal electrolyte. The sodium ion battery delivers an improved voltage of 3.1 V, a high power density of 3863 W kg−1both electrodes, negligible temperature dependency of energy/power densities and an extremely low capacity fading rate of 0.007% per cycle over 1000 cycles, which are among the best thus far reported for sodium ion full cells, making it a competitive choice in large-scale energy storage systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2598
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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