Oxidative stress is closely related to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of tacrine-ferulic acid dimers linked by an alkylenediamine side chain (TnFA, n = 2-7), a series of novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Among these dimers, pre-treatment of tacrine(2)-ferulic acid (T2FA, 3-30 μM) attenuated 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. The activations of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were observed after the treatment of 6-OHDA. Both SB415286 (an inhibitor of GSK3β) and PD98059 (an inhibitor of ERK kinase) reduced the neurotoxicity induced by 6-OHDA, indicating that GSK3β and ERK are involved in 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis. T2FA was able to inhibit the activation of GSK3β, but not ERK, in an Akt-dependent manner. Furthermore, LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, abolished the neuroprotective effect of T2FA. Collectively, these results suggest that T2FA prevents 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis possibly by activating the Akt pathway in PC12 cells.
- Parkinson's disease
- Tacrine(2)-ferulic acid
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology