Synergistic utilization of inherent halides and alcohols in hydraulic fracturing wastewater for radical-based treatment: A case study of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate removal

Di Wang, Yuqing Sun, Daniel C.W. Tsang, Eakalak Khan, Dong Wan Cho, Yaoyu Zhou, Fei Qi, Jianyu Gong, Linling Wang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


The degradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was examined as an example to capitalize on the potential interactions of peroxydisulfate (PS) and ferrous iron (Fe2+) in the model Day-1/Day-90 and on-site hydraulic fracturing wastewater (FWW). The primary oxidative radicals in the Fe2+/PS system (i.e., SO4[rad] and [rad]OH) were less effective for the degradation of DEHP (6.45%) in ultrapure water. Both chloride (Cl) and bromide (Br) at equivalent molar ratio with PS enhanced DEHP degradation (15.6% and 45.5%, respectively) via the generation of Cl[rad] and Br[rad] radicals, whereas the degradation rate was inhibited by the excessive amount of Cl or Br in the Day-1/Day-90 FWW. However, the co-presence of ethylene glycol (C2H4(OH)2, 0.043% v/v in the FWW) and halide ions (Cl or Br, 0.05 mM) resulted in the highest removal efficiency of 82.6 − 88.5% within 10 min by Fe2+/PS. Further investigation revealed that the formation of reductive alcohol radicals ([rad]C2H3(OH)2) slowed down or replenished the Fe2+ exhaustion. This study demonstrated that the Fe2+/PS-based advanced oxidation may show a synergistic interplay with Cl/Br and C2H4(OH)2 in the FWW, which depends on their relative concentrations. Thus, the inherent constituents in the fracturing wastewater can be utilized for the catalytic degradation of co-existing organic contaminants.

Original languageEnglish
Article number121321
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2020


  • Alcohol radicals
  • Fracturing wastewater treatment
  • Persulfate radicals
  • Salinity-rich wastewater
  • Shale gas development
  • Sustainable remediation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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