Synchronizing crowdsourced co-modality between passenger and freight transportation services

Xuan Yang, Xiang T.R. Kong, George Q. Huang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This study introduces a synchronized passenger and freight co-modality problem (SPFCP), exploring a crowdsourced co-modality transportation mode where passengers, viewed as an external crowd, volunteer to participate in logistics activities in exchange for compensation. In SPFCP, decision-makers have the option to utilize both crowdsourced passengers (CPs) and self-operated professional couriers (PCs) for deliveries. We formalize the problem and employ a population-based variable neighborhood search to solve it. Our findings indicate that the availability of CPs crucially enhances delivery capacity and efficiency, with the system benefiting from a larger pool of CPs and a higher variability in their travel distances. However, challenges arise from extreme average parcel distances, necessitating precise matching for short distances and extensive crowdsourced resources for long distances. The study underscores the viability of integrating crowdsourced logistics into urban transport systems, suggesting a strategic balance between leveraging crowdsourced solutions and managing logistical complexities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103490
Number of pages19
JournalTransportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024


  • Co-modality
  • Crowdsourcing
  • Parcel delivery
  • Public transport

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Transportation


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