Sustainability likelihood of remediation options for metal-contaminated soil/sediment

Season S. Chen, Jessica S. Taylor, Kitae Baek, Eakalak Khan, Daniel C.W. Tsang, Yong Sik Ok

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


� 2017 Elsevier Ltd Multi-criteria analysis and detailed impact analysis were carried out to assess the sustainability of four remedial alternatives for metal-contaminated soil/sediment at former timber treatment sites and harbour sediment with different scales. The sustainability was evaluated in the aspects of human health and safety, environment, stakeholder concern, and land use, under four different scenarios with varying weighting factors. The Monte Carlo simulation was performed to reveal the likelihood of accomplishing sustainable remediation with different treatment options at different sites. The results showed that in-situ remedial technologies were more sustainable than ex-situ ones, where in-situ containment demonstrated both the most sustainable result and the highest probability to achieve sustainability amongst the four remedial alternatives in this study, reflecting the lesser extent of off-site and on-site impacts. Concerns associated with ex-situ options were adverse impacts tied to all four aspects and caused by excavation, extraction, and off-site disposal. The results of this study suggested the importance of considering the uncertainties resulting from the remedial options (i.e., stochastic analysis) in addition to the overall sustainability scores (i.e., deterministic analysis). The developed framework and model simulation could serve as an assessment for the sustainability likelihood of remedial options to ensure sustainable remediation of contaminated sites.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)421-427
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017


  • Contaminated soil
  • Heavy metals
  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • Multi-criteria analysis
  • Soil stabilization
  • Sustainable remediation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemistry


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