A complete surface reconstruction takes place after a local connection between two crossed tubes is established, leading to the creation of an extended X-shaped junction constituted by topological defects with smooth negative curvature. Molecular-dynamics simulations show that the surface reconstructions occur through (1) generalized Stone-Wales transformation and (2) the movement of sp and s p3 atoms and their transformation to s p2 atoms by bond rearrangement. Based on both the principle of energy minimization and a generalized Euler's rule, it is demonstrated that the most stable structure for X junctions contains only 12 heptagons. The annealing temperature influences the topological structure and stability of junctions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics