Due to COVID-19, universities have shifted to offer online learning for their students from traditional face-to-face learning. Despite various efforts made by university administrators for their students’ online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, not much has been identified about how students perceived online learning and what factors affected their online learning engagement and outcomes. Examining students’ motivation, self-efficacy, and anxiety as key factors for their online learning engagement and outcomes, this study conducted a self-administered online survey with college students in three countries: the U.S., South Korea, and Colombia. This study used SEM to test hypotheses and conducted a multi-group analysis to find differences among students. The findings indicated that students’ self-efficacy and anxiety significantly impacted their online learning engagement, influencing online learning outcomes. Although students were highly engaged in online learning, their perceived online learning was not so effective and rigorous compared to face-to-face learning.
- Online learning
- online learning engagement
- online learning outcome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management