Strong and ductile titanium–oxygen–iron alloys by additive manufacturing

Tingting Song, Zibin Chen, Xiangyuan Cui, Shenglu Lu, Hansheng Chen, Hao Wang, Tony Dong, Bailiang Qin, Kang Cheung Chan, Milan Brandt, Xiaozhou Liao, Simon P. Ringer, Qian Ma

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

52 Citations (Scopus)


Titanium alloys are advanced lightweight materials, indispensable for many critical applications 1,2. The mainstay of the titanium industry is the α–β titanium alloys, which are formulated through alloying additions that stabilize the α and β phases 3–5. Our work focuses on harnessing two of the most powerful stabilizing elements and strengtheners for α–β titanium alloys, oxygen and iron 1–5, which are readily abundant. However, the embrittling effect of oxygen 6,7, described colloquially as ‘the kryptonite to titanium’ 8, and the microsegregation of iron 9 have hindered their combination for the development of strong and ductile α–β titanium–oxygen–iron alloys. Here we integrate alloy design with additive manufacturing (AM) process design to demonstrate a series of titanium–oxygen–iron compositions that exhibit outstanding tensile properties. We explain the atomic-scale origins of these properties using various characterization techniques. The abundance of oxygen and iron and the process simplicity for net-shape or near-net-shape manufacturing by AM make these α–β titanium–oxygen–iron alloys attractive for a diverse range of applications. Furthermore, they offer promise for industrial-scale use of off-grade sponge titanium or sponge titanium–oxygen–iron 10,11, an industrial waste product at present. The economic and environmental potential to reduce the carbon footprint of the energy-intensive sponge titanium production 12 is substantial.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)63-68
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2023


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