In this paper, we study the broadcasting performance of urban Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications at road intersections. In such environments, dense buildings obstruct the radio channel between vehicles in adjacent road segments and Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) signal propagation reduces the received power level. Therefore, messages that originate from adjacent roads traveling in a non-parallel direction usually have weaker signals than those from the road segment traveling in parallel opposite direction. Besides, the high vehicular density leads to insufficient orthogonal channel resources and high level of interference. We propose to apply Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) to V2X communications at urban road intersections to enhance the spectrum efficiency and improve the Package Delivery Ratio (PDR) performance. With NOMA, signals from multiple transmitters are decoded together and the interference from undesired users can be canceled if these messages are retrieved. Specifically, we study two NOMA-based V2X communication schemes, namely, NOMA-V2X decoded by Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC-V2X) and NOMA-V2X decoded by Joint Decoding (JD-V2X). Based on the tools developed in stochastic geometry, we derive and compare the PDR expressions for both NOMA schemes and the Orthogonal Multiple Access (OMA) scheme. Our results indicate that 1) both NOMA schemes outperform the conventional OMA scheme and the PDR of LOS/NLOS communications with two-user access increases by 51%/369%; 2) for four-user access, the proposed NOMA scheme shows 375% goodput enhancement as compared with the OMA scheme; and 3) JD-V2X provides significant PDR enhancement compared with SIC-V2X in the high data rate regime. Finally, we also demonstrate that the random access based NOMA schemes can achieve lower transmission latency than collision-free scheduling schemes when the road is over 56% jammed.
- Joint decoding (JD)
- non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)
- stochastic analysis
- successive interference cancellation (SIC)
- vehicle-to-everything (V2X)