Static resistances of cold-formed high strength steel tubular non-90° X-Joints

Madhup Pandey, Ben Young

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a test programme to investigate the static joint resistances and load vs deformation behaviour of cold-formed high strength steel (CFHSS) tubular non-90° X-joints. The investigation presented in this study predominantly focused on the chord failure of non-90° X-joints under brace axial compression loads. The experimental programme comprised of 26 tubular non-90° X-joints, which were fabricated with three included angles (θ1), i.e. 30°, 50° and 70°. Circular and square hollow sections were used as braces, while chords were made up of rectangular and square hollow sections. The nominal yield strengths of the tubular members were 900 and 960 MPa. The brace and chord members were connected using automatic gas metal arc welding process. The measured value of brace-to-chord width ratio (β) ranged from 0.53 to 1, brace-to-chord thickness ratio (τ) ranged from 0.52 to 1.01, chord width-to-thickness ratio (2γ) ranged from 20.5 to 38.7 and chord side wall slenderness ratio (h0/t0) ranged from 15.4 to 38.9. A total of three failure modes was observed, including chord face failure, chord side wall failure and combination of these two failure modes. The static joint resistances obtained from the tests were compared with the nominal joint resistances of X-joints given in the CIDECT and Eurocode 3. It is shown that the existing design rules in these specifications are not suitable for the design of S900 and S960 steel grades tubular non-90° X-joints. Further, the impact of the included angle (θ1) on the joint resistances of X-joints was observed by comparing the joint failure resistances of tubular non-90° X-joints obtained in this investigation with the joint failure resistances of tubular 90° X-joints of identical nominal tubular member dimensions and steel grades. In addition, tensile material properties from the weld heat affected regions of S960 steel grade tubular members of different thicknesses were also investigated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112064
JournalEngineering Structures
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2021


  • Experimental investigation
  • Non-90° X-joints
  • Rectangular hollow section joints
  • S900 and S960 steels
  • Thin-walled structures
  • Tubular connections

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering


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