Stage duration distributions and intraspecific competition: a review of continuous stage-structured models

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Stage structured models, by grouping individuals with similar demographic characteristics together, have proven useful in describing population dynamics. This manuscript starts from reviewing two widely used modeling frameworks that are in the form of integral equations and age-structured partial differential equations. Both modeling frameworks can be reduced to the same differential equation structures with/without time delays by applying Dirac and gamma distributions for the stage durations. Each framework has its advantages and inherent limitations. The net reproduction number and initial growth rate can be easily defined from the integral equation. However, it becomes challenging to integrate the density-dependent regulations on the stage distribution and survival probabilities in an integral equation, which may be suitably incorporated into partial differential equations. Further recent modeling studies, in particular those by Stephen A. Gourley and collaborators, are reviewed under the conditions of the stage duration distribution and survival probability being regulated by population density.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7543-7569
Number of pages27
JournalMathematical Biosciences and Engineering
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 20 May 2022


  • age-structured model
  • intraspecific competition
  • renew equation
  • stage duration distribution
  • stage structured model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Computational Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics


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