Spread spectrum-based high embedding capacity watermarking method for audio signals

Yong Xiang, Iynkaran Natgunanathan, Yue Rong, Song Guo

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)


Audio watermarking is a promising technology for copyright protection of audio data. Built upon the concept of spread spectrum (SS), many SS-based audio watermarking methods have been developed, where a pseudonoise (PN) sequence is usually used to introduce security. A major drawback of the existing SS-based audio watermarking methods is their low embedding capacity. In this paper, we propose a new SS-based audio watermarking method which possesses much higher embedding capacity while ensuring satisfactory imperceptibility and robustness. The high embedding capacity is achieved through a set of mechanisms: embedding multiple watermark bits in one audio segment, reducing host signal interference on watermark extraction, and adaptively adjusting PN sequence amplitude in watermark embedding based on the property of audio segments. The effectiveness of the proposed audio watermarking method is demonstrated by simulation examples.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7239554
Pages (from-to)2228-2237
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Audio watermarking
  • Copyright protection
  • Embedding capacity
  • PN sequence
  • Spread spectrum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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