Spray Pyrolyzed TiO2 Embedded Multi-Layer Front Contact Design for High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells

Md Shahiduzzaman, Mohammad Ismail Hossain, Sem Visal, Tetsuya Kaneko, Wayesh Qarony, Shinjiro Umezu, Koji Tomita, Satoru Iwamori, Dietmar Knipp, Yuen Hong Tsang, Md Akhtaruzzaman, Jean Michel Nunzi, Tetsuya Taima, Masao Isomura

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


The photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) can be improved by utilizing efficient front contact. However, it has always been a significant challenge for fabricating high-quality, scalable, controllable, and cost-effective front contact. This study proposes a realistic multi-layer front contact design to realize efficient single-junction PSCs and perovskite/perovskite tandem solar cells (TSCs). As a critical part of the front contact, we prepared a highly compact titanium oxide (TiO2) film by industrially viable Spray Pyrolysis Deposition (SPD), which acts as a potential electron transport layer (ETL) for the fabrication of PSCs. Optimization and reproducibility of the TiO2 ETL were discreetly investigated while fabricating a set of planar PSCs. As the front contact has a significant influence on the optoelectronic properties of PSCs, hence, we investigated the optics and electrical effects of PSCs by three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and finite element method (FEM) rigorous simulations. The investigation allows us to compare experimental results with the outcome from simulations. Furthermore, an optimized single-junction PSC is designed to enhance the energy conversion efficiency (ECE) by > 30% compared to the planar reference PSC. Finally, the study has been progressed to the realization of all-perovskite TSC that can reach the ECE, exceeding 30%. Detailed guidance for the completion of high-performance PSCs is provided.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Article number36
JournalNano-Micro Letters
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jan 2021


  • Electrical characteristic
  • Optics and optimization
  • Perovskite
  • Spray pyrolysis deposition
  • Tandem solar cells
  • TiO compact layer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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