Injury of endothelium is an inevitable consequence of cardiovascular stent implantation, which increases the incidence of in-stent restenosis (ISR) and late stent thrombosis (LST). Rapid and complete re-endothelialization, along with long-term suppression of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are mandatory to alleviate these complications. To this goal, we designed a multi-functional stent coating, consisting of a vascular endothelial growth factor/CuII-dopamine(VEGF/CuII-DA) complex network for a spatiotemporal delivery of VEGF and nitric oxide (NO). We fabricated such network using a two-step stent-coating process: first a CuII-DA network with NO catalytic activity via metal-catecholamine coordination chemistry, followed by conjugation of VEGF onto the CuII-DA network via imine formation. The conjugated VEGF significantly accelerated the early-stage endothelial cell (EC) migration/growth for the first 7 days, forming a new and complete endothelial layer on the lumen. Furthermore, Cu ions sustainably decomposed endogenous S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) in the bloodstream into NO for over 30 days, suppressing SMC migration/proliferation and ultimately preventing ISR and LST. Altogether, such designed stent coating provides options for a phase-adjusted endothelial repair during cardiovascular treatment.
- Biomimetic multi-functional coating
- Cardiovascular stents
- Nitric oxide
- Spatiotemporal dual-delivery
- Vascular endothelial growth factor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Science(all)