Spacing effects in task repetition research

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


This article provides a conceptual review of the principles of input spacing
as they might relate specifically to oral task repetition research and presents some of the
common methodological considerations from the broader input spacing literature. The
specific considerations discussed include the interaction between intersession intervals
and retention intervals, the manipulation of posttests as a between-participants variable,
the number of task repetitions, absolute versus relative spacing, the criterion of learning,
task type versus exact task repetition, and blocked versus interleaved practice. Each of
these considerations is discussed with links, as appropriate, to the relevant empirical
input spacing and task repetition literature. The purpose of this review is to highlight
how, in many cases, these methodological considerations have been overlooked by task
repetition researchers, including in studies where input spacing has and has not been a
direct focus, and to suggest ways of addressing these methodological shortcomings in
future research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)445-474
Number of pages30
JournalLanguage Learning
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • input spacing
  • instruction
  • research methods
  • second language
  • task repetition
  • task-based language teaching

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language


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