Social support as a buffer for perceived unfair treatment among Filipino Americans: Differences between San Francisco and Honolulu

Gilbert C. Gee, Juan Chen, Michael S. Spencer, Sarita See, Oliva A. Kuester, Diem Tran, David Takeuchi

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

77 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives. We examined whether perceived unfair treatment is associated with health conditions, whether social support moderates this association, and whether such relationships differ by location. Methods. Data were derived from the 1998-1999 Filipino American Community Epidemiological Study, a cross-sectional investigation of 2241 Filipino Americans living in San Francisco and Honolulu. Negative binomial regression was used to examine potential 2-way and 3-way interactions between support, unfair treatment, and city (San Francisco vs Honolulu). Results. Reports of unfair treatment were associated with increased illness after control for education, employment, acculturation, ethnic identity, negative life events, gender, and age. Furthermore, 2-way interactions were found between instrumental support and city, emotional support and city, and unfairtreatment and city, and a 3-way interaction was shown between instrumental support, unfair treatment, and city. Conclusions. Local contexts may influence the types of treatment encountered by members of ethnic minority groups, as well as their resources. These factors in turn may have implications for health disparities and well-being.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)677-684
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Public Health
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2006
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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