Smoothing the Sodium-Metal Anode with a Self-Regulating Alloy Interface for High-Energy and Sustainable Sodium-Metal Batteries

Lei Wang, Jian Shang, Qiyao Huang, Hong Hu, Yuqi Zhang, Chuan Xie, Yufeng Luo, Yuan Gao, Huixin Wang, Zijian Zheng

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)


Because of the large abundance of sodium (Na) as a source material and the easy fabrication of Na-containing compounds, the sodium (Na) battery is a more environmentally friendly and sustainable technology than the lithium-ion battery (LIB). Na-metal batteries (SMBs) are considered promising to realize a high energy density to overtake the cost effectiveness of LIBs, which is critically important in large-scale applications such as grid energy storage. However, the cycling stability of the Na-metal anode faces significant challenges particularly under high cycling capacities, due to the complex failure models caused by the formation of Na dendrites. Here, a universal surface strategy, based on a self-regulating alloy interface of the current collector, to inhibit the formation of Na dendrites is reported. High-capacity (10 mAh cm−2) Na-metal anodes can achieve stable cycling for over 1000 h with a low overpotential of 35 mV. When paired with a high-capacity Na3V2(PO4)2F3 cathode (7 mAh cm−2), the SMB delivers an unprecedented energy density (calculated based on all the cell components) over 200 Wh kg−1 with flooded electrolyte, or over 230 Wh kg−1 with lean electrolyte. The dendrite-free SMB also shows high cycling stability with a capacity retention per cycle over 99.9% and an ultrahigh energy efficiency of 95.8%.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2102802
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number41
Publication statusPublished - 14 Oct 2021


  • energy density
  • grid storage
  • interfaces
  • sodium batteries
  • sodium-metal anodes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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