Smoke movement in tilted tunnel fires with longitudinal ventilation

Wan Ki Chow, Y. Gao, J. H. Zhao, J. F. Dang, C. L. Chow, L. Miao

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

151 Citations (Scopus)


Studies on smoke movement in a tilted tunnel fire with longitudinal ventilation will be reported in this paper. Analytical equations on fires acting at the smoke layer were studied first. Numerical simulations with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) were carried out. Physical scale modeling experiments were performed to study the critical velocity for preventing back-layering in a tunnel model with tilted angles at 0°, 3°, 6° and 9° to the horizontal. Froude number modeling was used to deduce empirical formula on the location of smoke stagnant point under longitudinal ventilation. The normalized heat release rate Q″ is a key factor and the critical value of Q″ is 0.12. This study was focused on Q″ less than 0.1 while deriving the relations between critical velocity and heat release rate. The results are similar to some findings reported earlier in the literature. Non-dimensional critical longitudinal velocity for preventing back-layering effect was found to be varied with heat release rate to the power 1/3. The critical velocities for preventing back-layering for tilted tunnels are higher than the values required for horizontal tunnels. However, a corrected empirical formula for critical velocity in a tilted tunnel is proposed based on the experimental and numerical results.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14-22
Number of pages9
JournalFire Safety Journal
Publication statusPublished - 16 May 2015


  • Computational Fluid Dynamics
  • Smoke management
  • Tilted tunnel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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