Smart, connected open architecture product: an IT-driven co-creation paradigm with lifecycle personalization concerns

Pai Zheng, Yuan Lin, Chun Hsien Chen, Xun Xu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

98 Citations (Scopus)


Nowadays, the emphasis on manufacturing has shifted from a manufacturer-dominating to a customer-centric manner by actively involving users into the co-creation process to realise individual satisfaction. In such era, the rapid development of information and communication technology (e.g. wireless sensor network, and cyber-physical systems) enables a promising market of IT-driven product, i.e. smart, connected product, and also changes the way of user–manufacturer interaction in the product development process. However, to the best of authors’ knowledge, co-creation manner in such context is scarcely reported. Meanwhile, there is a lack of any paradigms given to enable such product open innovation along the lifecycle for personalisation concerns. Aiming to fill this gap, this paper, as an explorative research, proposes a new product development paradigm, i.e. smart, connected open architecture product (SCOAP). It follows the adaptable design principles for product extendibility and lifecycle consideration. Moreover, it enlarges the scope of existing open architecture product by involving IT-driven innovation consideration as well. Hence, the definitions, characteristics, evaluation criteria, development method, and lifecycle co-creation context of SCOAP are presented in details. To make it more concrete, a demo project of a smart, connected open architecture bicycle is given at last.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2571-2584
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Production Research
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 18 Apr 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • co-creation
  • connected product
  • cyber-physical systems
  • open architecture product
  • personalisation
  • product lifecycle management
  • smart

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Strategy and Management
  • Management Science and Operations Research
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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