Sizing and grading methods with consideration of footwear styles

Ameersing Luximon, Lanyin Jiang, Yan Luximon

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Sizing and grading are very important in footwear production, directly influencing the fit and comfort of footwear. Currently, the footwear industry relies on traditional sizing and grading systems, which vary around the world. Modern measuring technologies, such as 3D scanning and modeling, are starting to be used in footwear mass production. Sizing and grading of footwear is closely related to the sizing and grading of foot. This study investigates the application of principal component analysis (PCA) in sizing and grading methods and the influence of footwear styles based on 3D foot shapes. Three sizing and grading methods were simulated and evaluated. Results show that, compared to the traditional method, the sizing and grading using PCA method provides less modeling error, hence will result in better fit. Furthermore, the prediction error for various footwear styles are significantly different and the footwear fit near the sole could be achieved easier than instep and ankle region. This indicates that various sizing and grading rules can be applied focusing on different footwear styles in order to develop optimal sizes. Relevance to industry: The proposed new sizing and grading method could benefit the footwear industry since it provides a better fit comparing to the traditional method. The influence of footwear styles on prediction error gives more detailed insights for manufacturers to further understand the fitting result when applying the different sizing and grading methods.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102960
JournalInternational Journal of Industrial Ergonomics
Publication statusPublished - May 2020


  • Footwear style
  • Principal component analysis
  • Sizing and grading

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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