Sidereal filtering based on single differences for mitigating GPS multipath effects on short baselines

Ping Zhong, Xiaoli Ding, Linguo Yuan, You Lin Xu, Kenny Kwok, Yongqi Chen

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

110 Citations (Scopus)


Carrier-phase multipath effects are one of the most significant error sources in precise Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning applications. A new sidereal filtering algorithm based on single differences is developed to mitigate multipath effects for short-baseline high-rate GPS applications such as structural deformation monitoring. This method differs from traditional sidereal filtering in that our method operates on the single differences rather than the coordinates or double differences. A multipath model for the single differences on the reference day is established for each satellite and is used to remove multipath errors from observations of subsequent days by taking advantage of the sidereal repeatability of multipath signals. Using both simulated and real GPS observations, we demonstrate that this method is insensitive to different weighting strategies used in computing single differences from double differences. Applying the proposed method can reduce the root mean square (RMS) of positioning noises by 82% on average. Compared to sidereal filtering (in either coordinate or double differences domain) and aspect repeat time adjustment, this method can further reduce the RMS values by 13 and 7%, respectively. Wavelet spectra have shown that the proposed method is more effective in mitigating multipath errors of both long and short periods. This method is also more advantageous in that it is applicable when different GPS satellites are observed on different days.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-158
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Geodesy
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2010


  • Double differences
  • GPS
  • Multipath effects
  • Short baseline
  • Sidereal filtering
  • Single differences

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Computers in Earth Sciences


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