Shipping network design in a growth market: The case of Indonesia

Ningwen Tu, Dimas Adiputranto, Xiaowen Fu, Zhi Chun Li

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


This paper investigates the design issues of a shipping network when cargo demand increases rapidly. A gravity-type model for origin-destination (OD) demand estimation is first presented and calibrated based on the current cargo volumes of the Indonesian maritime market. A model for maximizing total social welfare is then proposed to design the shipping network with cargo demand levels forecasted for future years. The results show that for the Indonesian maritime market, a hub-and-spoke network with fully connected hub ports is better than a network with sequentially connected hub ports in terms of total social welfare. The optimal choices for the international gateway and domestic hub ports vary as cargo demand increases over time. The results suggest that a progressive policy can be promising for infrastructure investments in developing countries: government planning and regulations may be introduced in early years to enhance infrastructure utilization and economic return. With increased demand the market may be liberalized to promote healthy competition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)108-125
Number of pages18
JournalTransportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Hub port
  • Indonesia
  • International gateway
  • OD demand estimation
  • Shipping network design
  • Social welfare

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Transportation


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