A combined use of basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) reinforcement and geopolymer concrete was adopted in one-way slabs to achieve improved durability and environmental friendliness. In total six BFRP reinforced geopolymer concrete one-way slabs were fabricated and their shear performance was evaluated through four points loading tests. The test parameters were concrete strength (30, 40 and 50 MPa) and reinforcement ratio (1.20% and 2.18%). The load-deflection relationships, crack patterns, failure modes and load-strain relationships of all the specimens were carefully investigated. Furthermore, two dimensional (2D) finite element (FE) analysis was conducted to reproduce the test results. The results obtained in this study indicated that: (1) the specimens were governed by shear-compression or diagonal tension failure depending on the reinforcement ratio but with similar shear resistance; (2) the shear resistance could be predicted with reasonable accuracy by existing design guidelines (e.g., JSCE guidelines) for FRP-reinforced concrete members; and (3) the FE model with implementation of appropriate material models provided a good prediction of the structural performance of the tested slabs with the implementation of constitutive laws for geopolymer concrete.