Sensitivity analysis of the combined travel demand model with applications

Chao Yang, Anthony Chen

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


The conventional sequential four-step procedure of travel demand forecasting has been widely adopted by practitioners. However, it suffers from inconsistent consideration of travel times and congestion effects in various steps of the procedure. A combined travel demand model overcomes the problems associated with the sequential four-step procedure by integrating travel-destination-mode-route choice together. In this paper, a standard sensitivity analysis for non-linear programming is employed for conducting the sensitivity analysis of the combined travel demand model. Explicit expressions of the derivatives of model variables with respect to perturbations of input variables and parameters of the combined travel demand model are developed. These derivatives could be used to assess changes in solution variables and various system performance measures when the network characteristics are changed slightly. To gain insight into the usefulness of the sensitivity expressions, five applications, such as identification of critical parameters, paradox analysis, access control, destination choice, and error and uncertainty analysis, are presented with numerical results.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)909-921
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Journal of Operational Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Combined travel demand model
  • Four-step travel demand model
  • Non-linear program
  • Sensitivity analysis
  • Traffic equilibrium
  • Travel demand model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Management Science and Operations Research
  • Information Systems and Management


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